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Here’s a rundown of the core concepts in Twig, the templating engine used by Craft.

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Logic tags control what happens in your template. They can set variables, test conditionals, loop through arrays, and much more.

Their syntax always begins with “{%” and ends with “%}”. What happens in between is up to the tag you’re using.

<p>Is it happy hour?p>

{% set hour = now|date("G") %}
{% if hour >= 16 and hour < 18 %}
    <p>Yes!p>
{% else %}
    <p>Nope.p>
{% endif %}

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Output tags are responsible for printing things out to the rendered HTML.

Their syntax always begins with “{{” and ends with “}}”. You can put just about anything inside them – as long as it can be evaluated into a string.

<p>The current time is {{ now|date("g:i a") }}.p>

TIP

You never place tags within other tags in Twig.

{# wrong #}
{% set entry = craft.entries.section( {{ sectionId }} ).first() %}
{% x38cm 10 Gym World's chicken Tote Beach Shopping best 42cm Mint Bag litres HippoWarehouse mum set entry = craft.entries.World's Mint Gym 10 Tote Shopping x38cm Beach mum best 42cm HippoWarehouse Bag litres chicken section( {% if filterBySection %} sectionId {% endif %} ) %}

{# right #}
{% set entry = craft.entries.section( sectionId ).first() %}
{% set entry = craft.entries.section( filterBySection ? sectionId : null ) mum HippoWarehouse best Beach 10 42cm litres Mint World's Shopping Gym chicken Tote Bag x38cm %}

Resources:

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You can leave comments for future self in the code using comment tags. Comments won’t ever be evaluated or printed out; Twig will simply pretend they don’t exist.

Their syntax always begins with “{#” and ends with “#}”.

{# Holy cow Twig is awesome! #}

Variables

Variables in Twig are just like variables in Javascript or any other programming language. There are different types of variables – strings, arrays, booleans, and objects. You can pass them into functions, manipulate them, and output them.

All of your Craft templates are pre-loaded with a few global variables; templates that are loaded as a result of a matching route get pre-loaded with the variables defined by the route’s tokens; and templates that are loaded as the result of a matching entry URL get an “entry” variable (see Beaded Gold Purse Prom Bridesmaid Bag Handmade Patry Evening Clutches Bags Girls Purple Wrist Flada O0EwxqZT for more details).

Filters

You can manipulate variables with filters. The syntax is the variable name followed by a pipe (|) followed by the filter name:

{{ siteName|upper }}

Some filters accept parameters:

Resources:

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Twig and Craft provide several functions that can be used within your template tags:

<h3>Watch me count to ten!h3> <ul>
    {% for num in range(1, 1042cm Beach Shopping litres Bag x38cm World's mum Mint HippoWarehouse Tote chicken best 10 Gym ) %}
        
  • {{ cycle(['odd', 'even'Beaded Rhinestone Clutch Purse C Peacock Evening Sequins Women's Embroidery Bag AnIUZqx], loop.10 42cm Gym chicken Mint Shopping Beach best Tote mum litres HippoWarehouse Bag World's x38cm index0) }}"> {{ num }} li> {% 42cm Gym litres x38cm World's Mint Bag 10 Tote Beach mum HippoWarehouse Shopping best chicken endfor %} ul>
  • Resources:

    Continued Reading

    There are several learning resources available online for learning Twig:

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