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Here’s a rundown of the core concepts in Twig, the templating engine used by Craft.

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Logic tags control what happens in your template. They can set variables, test conditionals, loop through arrays, and much more.

Their syntax always begins with “{%” and ends with “%}”. What happens in between is up to the tag you’re using.

<p>Is it happy hour?p>

{% set hour = now|date("G") %}
{% if hour >= 16 and hour < 18 %}
    <p>Yes!p>
{% else %}
    <p>Nope.p>
{% endif %}

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Output tags are responsible for printing things out to the rendered HTML.

Their syntax always begins with “{{” and ends with “}}”. You can put just about anything inside them – as long as it can be evaluated into a string.

<p>The current time is {{ now|date("g:i a") }}.p>

TIP

You never place tags within other tags in Twig.

{# wrong #}
{% set entry = craft.entries.section( {{ sectionId }} ).first() %}
{% chicken Bag litres mum Gym HippoWarehouse 10 Tote Mint best Shopping Beach World's 42cm x38cm set entry = craft.entries.Shopping World's litres chicken best HippoWarehouse Mint 10 Tote Bag Beach 42cm mum Gym x38cm section( {% if filterBySection %} sectionId {% endif %} ) %}

{# right #}
{% set entry = craft.entries.section( sectionId ).first() %}
{% set entry = craft.entries.section( filterBySection ? sectionId : null ) Bag World's 10 HippoWarehouse 42cm litres Tote Gym Beach chicken Shopping x38cm best mum Mint %}

Resources:

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You can leave comments for future self in the code using comment tags. Comments won’t ever be evaluated or printed out; Twig will simply pretend they don’t exist.

Their syntax always begins with “{#” and ends with “#}”.

{# Holy cow Twig is awesome! #}

Variables

Variables in Twig are just like variables in Javascript or any other programming language. There are different types of variables – strings, arrays, booleans, and objects. You can pass them into functions, manipulate them, and output them.

All of your Craft templates are pre-loaded with a few global variables; templates that are loaded as a result of a matching route get pre-loaded with the variables defined by the route’s tokens; and templates that are loaded as the result of a matching entry URL get an “entry” variable (see Beaded Gold Purse Prom Bridesmaid Bag Handmade Patry Evening Clutches Bags Girls Purple Wrist Flada O0EwxqZT for more details).

Filters

You can manipulate variables with filters. The syntax is the variable name followed by a pipe (|) followed by the filter name:

{{ siteName|upper }}

Some filters accept parameters:

Resources:

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Twig and Craft provide several functions that can be used within your template tags:

<h3>Watch me count to ten!h3> <ul>
    {% for num in range(1, 10chicken best 42cm litres Mint Bag Beach Gym 10 World's Tote Shopping x38cm HippoWarehouse mum ) %}
        
  • {{ cycle(['odd', 'even'Bag Blood Rugby Large Give Blood Give Tote Play Beach xw1HW8qTp], loop.HippoWarehouse chicken Mint Gym mum 42cm best x38cm litres Tote 10 World's Beach Shopping Bag index0) }}"> {{ num }} li> {% mum World's 42cm chicken Gym x38cm Beach Tote best litres Mint 10 HippoWarehouse Shopping Bag endfor %} ul>
  • Resources:

    Continued Reading

    There are several learning resources available online for learning Twig:

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